Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complication of pregnancy defined as any level of early or first detection of glucose intolerance in pregnancy. It is a prevalent metabolic disorder associated with several maternal and neonatal complications. On the other hand, chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality worldwide, and diabetic nephropathy accounts for approximately half of all cases of end-stage renal disease. Due to these two conditions’ high prevalence and significance, any possible association would be a public health concern requiring further investigation. To this end, the current study aimed to review the adverse effects of GDM on maternal and neonatal kidneys.